HAZARD CLASSES OF CARGO
Dangerous cargo is carried by the following means of transport: by road, by sea, by rail and by air. Each type of transport operates under certain rules and standards of carriage, such as documentation, labelling, requirements to escort of cargo. Carriage of any of such cargo requires competent knowledge from servicing personnel, compliance with rules of conduct in emergencies concerning each hazard class. Personnel must be properly prepared and categorized. ADR HAZARD CLASSES
Hazard class is assigned to any dangerous cargo permitted for carriage. There are nine classes of dangerous substances divided into subclasses. You can read more about each hazard class below: HAZARD CLASS 1 (ADR – 1)
Materials with ability to explode or cause fire, which can also lead to explosion, as well as substances with pyrotechnic effects. Articles with a mass explosion hazard. This type of explosion leads to immediate combustion of the entire cargo. Substances with a projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard. Articles emitting radiant heat at ignition or having minor blast effects. Low sensitivity articles with a mass explosion hazard and only a small hazard of transition from combustion to detonation. HAZARD CLASS 2 (ADR – 2)
Hazard class 2 is assigned mainly to gases (such as oxygen), in particular mixtures of gases, pure gas, mixtures of a few types of gases. Gas is a substance that has a vapour pressure of over 300 kPa at 50 degrees centigrade. It is important to remember that the main hazard of gases is their pressure. Gases may be asphyxiant, poisonous, toxic, corrosive, flammable.
HAZARD CLASS 3 (ADR – 3)
- non-flammable gases, including non-toxic gases;
- flammable gases, including toxic gases;
- chemically instable gases and toxic gases.
Hazard class three is assigned to flammable substances, liquids and solids in melted state with a flash point not more than sixty-one degrees centigrade, as well as explosives dissolved in water or other liquids for creation of a homogeneous liquid mixture for the purpose of mitigation of explosion risk. Cargo of such class includes diesel fuel, light fuel oil, gas oil as well as paint (we have described the process of carriage of paint). HAZARD CLASS 4 (ADR – 4)
Flammable substances ready to combust or contribute to fire through friction, moisture absorption, heating. Solid explosives. Self-reactive solid or liquid substances. Solids include granulated substances, powders and pastes that can combust under external factors (sunrays, lighted match, spark). Articles liable to spontaneous combustion. Pyrophoric substances, including liquid and solid mixtures and solutions. These substances are most liable to spontaneous combustion, which occurs when heat release rate exceeds heat exchange rate and spontaneous ignition temperature is reached. Articles emitting flammable gases when in contact with water. HAZARD CLASS 5 (ADR – 5)
Oxidizing substances that easily release oxygen, support combustion and may explode and ignite when in contact with other substances. This class also includes organic substances consisting of derivatives of hydrogen peroxide. They are called organic peroxides, for short. HAZARD CLASS 6 (ADR – 6)
Hazard class six is assigned to toxic substances liable to cause poisoning or disease if swallowed or inhaled or by contact with skin or mucosa. Sometimes they may cause death. They are highly toxic, toxic and slightly toxic substances. Infectious substances containing pathogens. HAZARD CLASS 7 (ADR – 7)
Hazard class seven is assigned to radioactive material containing radionuclides. Such cargo is dangerous because it emits alpha, beta and gamma radiation. These substances may spontaneously ignite, have corrosive effect and release thermal energy. They may cause burns when in contact, hair loss, changes in blood composition, cancers, leukaemia, death. HAZARD CLASS 8 (ADR – 8)
Corrosives are substances affecting epithelial tissue of mucosa or skin when in contact. They may damage cargo, vehicles and present other hazards. These substances usually include acids, alkalis, highly corrosive articles. HAZARD CLASS 9 (ADR – 9)
Miscellaneous dangerous substances, not included into other ADR classes. Fine dust causing injury if inhaled or articles releasing dioxins during combustion, as well as flammable vapours.